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Markers of cellular proliferation are expressed in cortical tubers



p34cdc2, collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), doublecortin (DCX), HuD, and NeuN expression was assessed in tuber (n = 16) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA; n = 6) specimens in tuberous sclerosis complex to define the developmental phenotype and lineage of giant cells (CGs) in these lesions. Many GCs exhibited HuD and NeuN immunolabeling suggesting a differentiated neural phenotype. Giant cells in tubers, SEGAs and subependymal nodules in the Eker rat model of TSC expressed CRMP4 and DCX. Tubers and SEGAs exhibit a heterogeneous profile of differentiation and may share a common cellular lineage. Tubers may contain a subpopulation of newly generated cells. Ann Neurol 2003;53:668–673