We tested whether transfer of the gene coding for glutamic acid decarboxylase to dorsal root ganglion using a herpes simplex virus vector to achieve release of GABA in dorsal horn would attenuate nociception in this condition. Subcutaneous inoculation of a replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (vector QHGAD67) 7 days after selective L5 spinal nerve ligation reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia; the antiallodynic effect lasted 6 weeks and was reestablished by reinoculation. QHGAD67 inoculation also suppressed induction of c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1 and 2 in the spinal cord. Ann Neurol 2005;57:914–918