Nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease


  • Potential conflicts of interest: This article is part of a supplement sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). T.S. serves as a consultant for BI, and is the principle investigator for a BI-sponsored clinical trial. T.S. also consults for Teva, GSK, Novartis, Valeant, Medtronic, and Allergan. K.S. speaks for BI and has received grant support from the company. Kapil Sethi's relationship with the sponsor has had no influence on the contents of this article


Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, attention has focused on the motor symptomatology of PD, but it is now appreciated that the nonmotor symptoms affecting neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic, and sensory domains occur in up to 88% of PD patients and can be an important source of disability. Nonmotor manifestations of PD play a significant role in the impairment of disease-related quality of life. The cause of nonmotor manifestations of PD is multifactorial, but to a large extent, these manifestations are related to the nature of the neurodegenerative process and the widespread nondopaminergic neuropathological changes associated with the disease. Recognition of nonmotor disability is essential not only for ascertaining the functional status of patients but also for better appreciating the nature of the neurodegenerative process in PD. In addition, a number of nonmotor manifestations can precede the onset of motor symptoms in PD and can be used as screening tools allowing for early disease identification and for trials of possible disease-modifying interventions. This article reviews depression, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction in PD. Ann Neurol 2008;64 (suppl):S65–S80