Imaging of cerebrovascular β-amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) is complicated by the nearly universal overlap of this pathology with Alzheimer's pathology. We performed positron emission tomographic imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B on 42-year-old man with early manifestations of Iowa-type hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a form of the disorder with little or no plaque deposits of fibrillar β-amyloid. The results demonstrated increased Pittsburgh Compound B retention selectively in occipital cortex, sparing regions typically labeled in Alzheimer's disease. These results offer compelling evidence that Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography can noninvasively detect isolated cerebral amyloid angiopathy before overt signs of tissue damage such as hemorrhage or white matter lesions. Ann Neurol 2008;64:587–591