Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are morphologically distinct but genetically heterogeneous muscular dystrophies in which disintegration of Z disks and then of myofibrils is followed by ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins. Cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and dominant inheritance are frequent associated features. Mutations in αB-crystallin, desmin, myotilin, Zasp, or filamin-C can cause MFMs and were detected in 32 of 85 patients of the Mayo MFM cohort. Bag3, another Z-disk–associated protein, has antiapoptotic properties, and its targeted deletion in mice causes fulminant myopathy with early lethality. We therefore searched for mutations in BAG3 in 53 unrelated MFM patients.