SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryFigure1.tiff2013KSupplemental Figure 1: T1-weighted 3D axial MRI parallel to the bicommissural plane showing the implanted electrodes in the PPN area. The slices are contiguous and 1.5 mm thick. The quadripolar electrodes have four contacts of 1.5 mm length, spaced by 0.5 mm. The anterior (AC) and posterior (PC) white commissures are shown on the image at the bottom of the figures. The level of each image is reported in mm below (caudal to) the AC-PC plane. The most caudal slice (image on the upper left) corresponds to the tip of the electrode. For both patients, the most distal contacts (0 and 1), delivering cathodic current, are located in the PPN area at about the level of the second and third slices from the most caudal one, that is, the −13.5 and −12 mm slices for patient #1 and −15 and −13.5 mm for patient #2. The electrodes located in the subthalamic nucleus are visible on the most rostral slices.
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryFigure2.tiff1977KSupplemental Figure 2: T1-weighted 3D axial MRI parallel to the bicommissural plane showing the implanted electrodes in the PPN area. The slices are contiguous and 1.5 mm thick. The quadripolar electrodes have four contacts of 1.5 mm length, spaced by 0.5 mm. The anterior (AC) and posterior (PC) white commissures are shown on the image at the bottom of the figures. The level of each image is reported in mm below (caudal to) the AC-PC plane. The most caudal slice (image on the upper left) corresponds to the tip of the electrode. For both patients, the most distal contacts (0 and 1), delivering cathodic current, are located in the PPN area at about the level of the second and third slices from the most caudal one, that is, the −13.5 and −12 mm slices for patient #1 and −15 and −13.5 mm for patient #2. The electrodes located in the subthalamic nucleus are visible on the most rostral slices.
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryTable.doc100KSupplementary Table 1. Time elapsed from stimulation onset to sleep onset, depending on the side and frequency of stimulation (randomized, double-blind conditions)
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryVideo1.mov45504KVideo 1: The application of an 80-Hz stimulation current during the daytime in the left pedunculopontine nucleus area in Patient 2 causes behavioral sleep within 12 seconds.
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryVideo2.wmv3030KVideo 2: Patient 1, who feels fully alert, is instructed to resist sleep during the daytime. The application of an 80-Hz stimulation current in his left pedunculopontine nucleus area induces micro-sleep episodes within 30 sec, including eye rolling, nodding, and slowing of the respiratory rate, followed by established non-REM sleep stages 1 and 2 after 1 min and 35 sec.
ANA_21912_sm_SupplementaryVideo3.mov27841KVideo 3: In Patient 1, the abrupt removal of the chronic 25-Hz stimulation current in the right and left pedunculopontine nucleus causes the rapid onset of non-REM sleep stage 1 after 17 seconds, followed 1 min 20 sec later by REM sleep with rapid eye movements and face muscle twiches.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.