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Additional supporting information can be found in the online version of this article.

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ANA_22696_sm_SuppFig1.tif4395KSupplemental Figure 1. Non-tuberal TSC tissue characterization. A-B. Typical macroscopic appearance of dysplastic and nondysplastic brain tissue. The small arrows indicate the sharp contrast between tuberal and non-tuberal portions of the specimen, while the arrowheads show the approximate location of dissected tissue. C. Western blot quantification of whole cell homogenates demonstrates a significant increase in pS6 expression levels in cortical tubers, but levels comparable to control in the non-tuberal cortex. Histograms are averaged optical density normalized to actin, and expressed relative to the mean control values. Insets are the representative western blots for individual proteins. *: p < 0.05. Error bars indicate S.E.M.
ANA_22696_sm_SuppFig2.tif4132KSupplemental Figure 2. Cell-specific expression pattern of the mTORC1 downstream target pS6 in human cortical tubers. A-C. Double-label immunocytochemistry for non-phosphorylated neurofilament SMI 311 and pS6 demonstrates hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling in tuber dysplastic neurons (small arrows) and dysplastic astrocytes (arrowheads). D-F. Vimentin positive giant cells express high pS6 levels. G-I. NeuN-expressing normal-seized neurons within cortical tubers express low levels of pS6 (small arrow), in contrast to high pS6 expression in dysplastic astroglia (arrowheads). J-L. Reactive astrocytes labeled with GFAP express low/no pS6 (small arrow), while giant cells (arrowheads) are highly pS6 positive. Scale bars represent 20μm in all panels.
ANA_22696_sm_SuppTab1.doc52KSupporting Information Table 1. Clinical features of TSC, FCD and MCD biopsy samples collected following epilepsy surgery.
ANA_22696_sm_SuppTab2.doc32KSupporting Information Table 2. Antibodies Used for Western Blot and Immunocytochemistry.
ANA_22696_sm_SuppInfo.doc40KSupporting Information

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