Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that presents with variable pathologies that may reflect different disease-causing mechanisms. Existing animal models of MS induce pathology using either local injection of gliotoxins or stimulation of the immune system with myelin-related peptides. In none of these models is the primary cellular target well characterized, and although demyelination is a hallmark pathological feature in MS, it is unclear to what extent this reflects local oligodendrocyte loss. To unambiguously identify the effects of oligodendrocyte death in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, we developed a method for experimentally inducing programmed cell death selectively in mature oligodendrocytes and assessed the effects on demyelination, immunological stimulation, and gliosis. The resulting pathology is discussed relative to observed MS pathologies.