Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Although >100 different Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations have been identified in ALS patients, it remains controversial whether all of them are disease-causative mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop molecular mechanism-based diagnosis and treatment of ALS caused by SOD1 mutations.
We previously reported that 3 pathogenic mutations of SOD1 cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by inducing the binding of SOD1 to Derlin-1, a component of the ER homeostatic machinery. Here, we systematically analyzed 132 SOD1 mutants and found that most have a constitutively exposed Derlin-1–binding region (DBR) that is occluded in the wild-type protein. To develop the novel molecular mechanism-based antibody that can specifically recognize the aberrant structure of toxic SOD1 mutants, we generated the monoclonal antibody against the DBR.
MS785, a monoclonal antibody generated against the DBR, distinguished most ALS-causative SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. Moreover, MS785 recognized endogenous SOD1 in B lymphocytes derived from 14 ALS patients carrying SOD1 mutations but not from 11 healthy controls.
This is the first study to address the common property of all ALS-causative SOD1 mutants. MS785 is the first molecular mechanism-based antibody that was shown to be able to distinguish ALS-linked toxic SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. MS785 may thus become an innovative tool for the diagnosis of ALS. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:739–749