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A novel monoclonal antibody reveals a conformational alteration shared by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 mutants

Authors

  • Takao Fujisawa PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Kengo Homma MS,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Namiko Yamaguchi BS,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Hisae Kadowaki PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
    2. Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Medical Sciences, Miyazaki Medical College, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan
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  • Naomi Tsuburaya BS,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Isao Naguro PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Atsushi Matsuzawa PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
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  • Kohsuke Takeda DDS, PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
    2. Division of Cell Regulation, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
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  • Yuji Takahashi MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Jun Goto MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Shoji Tsuji MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Hideki Nishitoh DDS, PhD,

    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
    2. Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Medical Sciences, Miyazaki Medical College, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan
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  • Hidenori Ichijo DDS, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Education and Research for Chemical Biology of the Diseases, University of Tokyo
    • Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
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Abstract

Objective:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Although >100 different Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations have been identified in ALS patients, it remains controversial whether all of them are disease-causative mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop molecular mechanism-based diagnosis and treatment of ALS caused by SOD1 mutations.

Methods:

We previously reported that 3 pathogenic mutations of SOD1 cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by inducing the binding of SOD1 to Derlin-1, a component of the ER homeostatic machinery. Here, we systematically analyzed 132 SOD1 mutants and found that most have a constitutively exposed Derlin-1–binding region (DBR) that is occluded in the wild-type protein. To develop the novel molecular mechanism-based antibody that can specifically recognize the aberrant structure of toxic SOD1 mutants, we generated the monoclonal antibody against the DBR.

Results:

MS785, a monoclonal antibody generated against the DBR, distinguished most ALS-causative SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. Moreover, MS785 recognized endogenous SOD1 in B lymphocytes derived from 14 ALS patients carrying SOD1 mutations but not from 11 healthy controls.

Interpretation:

This is the first study to address the common property of all ALS-causative SOD1 mutants. MS785 is the first molecular mechanism-based antibody that was shown to be able to distinguish ALS-linked toxic SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. MS785 may thus become an innovative tool for the diagnosis of ALS. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:739–749

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