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Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

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Supplementary Fig. Correlation of voxelwise measures of Fractional anisotropy (FA), mode anisotropy (MO), mean diffusivity (DM) and radial diffusivity (DRAD) in all patients and controls. N=95 (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (1-tailed))

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Supplementary Table 1: Demographics and clinical data of traumatic brain injury patients. 1Severity classification based on Malec et al., 2007. J Neurotrauma. Moderate-Severe (Mod/Sev), Mild (Probable). Not Know (NK). Road Traffic Accident (RTA), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), days (d), hours (h), mintues (m). Structural findings on MR imaging: contusions/gliotic change (Cont), temporo-parietal (TP), frontal (F), occipital (O), fronto-parietal (FP), superficial siderosis (SS), right (R), left (L), bilateral (B), microbleed on gradient echo imaging (MB). Medications highlighted in Italics are potentially psychoactive.

Supplementary Table 2 Detecting the presence of TAI following traumatic brain injury. Classifiers were trained to separate contusion free MB+ve Patients and age matched controls using measures of Fractional anisotropy (FA), mode anisotropy (MO), mean diffusivity (DM) and radial diffusivity (DRAD). 14 contusion free MB+ve Patients (12 males, mean age ± SD: 36.6 ± 11.9 years) and 14 age-matched controls. Significance of classifiers is determined by permutation testing (See supplementary methods)

Supplementary Table 3: Classification of TAI in MB-ve TBI patients. Classifiers trained to separate contusion free MB+ve TBI patients from age-matched controls were applied to contusion free MB-ve patients. The output of this classifier separates the MB-ve group into two groups of likely or unlikely TAI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mode anisotropy (MO), mean diffusivity (DM) and radial diffusivity (DRAD)

Supplementary Table 4: Correlation of TAI patient probability with neuropsychological outcome. The probability of being a patient with TAI is assessed in contusion free MB-ve patients using classifiers trained to separate A) MB+ve patients B) contusion free MB+ve patients from age matched controls using four different diffusion metrics; fractional anisotropy (FA), mode anisotropy (MO), mean diffusivity (DM) and radial diffusivity (DRAD). (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (1-tailed), ** p<0.01 * p<0.05 3SF)

Supplementary Table 5: Predicting cognitive function following traumatic brain injury using support vector regression. Support vector regression was used to predict information processing speed (IPS), executive function (EF) and associative memory (AM). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mode anisotropy (MO), mean diffusivity (DM) and radial diffusivity (DRAD) (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (1-tailed), * p<0.01 3SF, ** p<0.001 3SF)

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Supplementary Information

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