• 1
    Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, et al. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:392399.
  • 2
    Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Galeotti R, et al. The value of cerebral Doppler venous haemodynamics in the assessment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 2009;282:2127.
  • 3
    Doepp F, Paul F, Valdueza JM, et al. No cerebrocervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2010;68:173183.
  • 4
    Baracchini C, Perini P, Calabrese M, et al. No evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at multiple sclerosis onset. Ann Neurol 2011;69:9099.
  • 5
    Baracchini C, Perini P, Causin F, et al. Progressive multiple sclerosis is not associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Neurology 2011;77:844850.
  • 6
    Tsivgoulis G, Mantatzis M, Bogiatzi C, et al. Extracranial venous hemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. Neurology 2011;77:12411245.
  • 7
    Zivadinov R, Marr K, Cutter G, et al. Prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS. Neurology 2011;77:138144.
  • 8
    Experimental multiple sclerosis vascular shunting procedure halted at Stanford. Ann Neurol 2010;67:A13A15.
  • 9
    Nedelmann M, Eicke BM, Dieterich M. Functional and morphological criteria of internal jugular valve insufficiency as assessed by ultrasound. J Neuroimaging 2005;15:7075.
  • 10
    Stolz E, Kaps M, Kern A, et al. Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography of intracranial veins and sinuses in adults. Reference data from 130 volunteers. Stroke 1999;30:10701075.
  • 11
    Baumgartner RW, Nirkko AC, Muri RM, Gonner F. Transoccipital power-based color-coded duplex sonography of cerebral sinuses and veins. Stroke 1997;28:13191323.
  • 12
    Intersocietal accreditation commission standards and guidelines for vascular testing accreditation. Ellicott City, MD: Intersocietal Accreditation Commission, 2012.
  • 13
    Vascular technology professional performance guidelines. Lower extremity venous insufficiency evaluation. Lanham, MD: Society for Vascular Ultrasound, 2010.
  • 14
    Menegatti E, Zamboni P. Doppler haemodynamics of cerebral venous return. Curr Neurovasc Res 2008;5:260265.
  • 15
    Zamboni P, Morovic S, Menegatti E, et al. Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound—recommendations for a protocol. Int Angiol 2011;30:571597.
  • 16
    Nicolaides AN, Morovic S, Menegatti E, et al. Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound: recommendations for a protocol. Funct Neurol 2011;26:229248.
  • 17
    Fox R, Baus L, Diaconu C, et al. Ultrasound assessment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Paper presented at: Fifth Joint Triennial Congress of the European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis; October 19–22, 2011; Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • 18
    Baracchini C, Valdueza JM, Del Sette M, et al. CCSVI and MS: a statement from the European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics. J Neurol 2012;259:25852589.
  • 19
    Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla. Observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis and in other neurodegenerative diseases (COSMO). Available at: Accessed September 13, 2012.