Nonconvulsive seizures after subarachnoid hemorrhage: Multimodal detection and outcomes
Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013
© 2013 American Neurological Association
Annals of Neurology
Volume 74, Issue 1, pages 53–64, July 2013
How to Cite
Claassen, J., Perotte, A., Albers, D., Kleinberg, S., Schmidt, J. M., Tu, B., Badjatia, N., Lantigua, H., Hirsch, L. J., Mayer, S. A., Connolly, E. S. and Hripcsak, G. (2013), Nonconvulsive seizures after subarachnoid hemorrhage: Multimodal detection and outcomes. Ann Neurol., 74: 53–64. doi: 10.1002/ana.23859
- Issue published online: 27 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 11 FEB 2013 04:43AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 18 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 28 JUL 2012
Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood.
We analyzed intracortical electroencephalographic (EEG) and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury.
Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients, and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (p = 0.001), blood pressure (p < 0.001), and respiratory rate (p < 0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (p = 0.03) and intracranial pressure (p = 0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure–associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (p = 0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively).
We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in rCBF. These real world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. Ann Neurol 2013;74:53–64