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The increasing longevity of patients with congenital and developmental disorders of the nervous system reflects the palliative and social success of pediatrics in the past 2 decades. This success has resulted in an increasing number of adult patients with residua or sequelae of childhood disease and/or its treatment. It is critically important that residencies and subspecialty fellowships train a cadre of physicians to prepare patients and families for the transition of children with special health care needs to adulthood and to attend to their unique medical, psychological, and social concerns. Health services and education research must better define the needs of this growing population and the best ways to educate their physicians and families and empower them to become as independent as their fullest potential allows. Ann Neurol 2013;74:158–163