Sixteen children with brain tumors received prospective intellectual evaluations with a follow-up of 2 to 5 years. All patients were treated with surgery and radiation and 5 received chemotherapy. Most of the children remained within the normal range of intelligence, but intelligence quotient (IQ) scores declined over time. Learning disabilities were present in 15 of 16 children after radiation, and 11 required special educational services. Risk factors associated with decline in IQ appear to be young age at time of radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy.