We report the clinical and neuropathologic phenotypes associated with two different missense mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS-1) gene in Japanese patients with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In the Ah4/JPN1 pedigree a missense mutation (C[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]T) was found at nucleotide 1102, which is predicted to cause an alanine-to-valine missense substitution at codon 260. In this family, the disease had a mean age of onset of 40.3 years and an indolent course (range, 8–19 years). Neuropathologic studies in 3 members of this pedigree showed widespread senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss, as well as abundant perivascular subpial amyloid deposits in the Virchow-Robin spaces and the presence of Pick-like intraneuronal inclusions in the dentate gyrus. In the second pedigree, transmitting a C[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]T nucleotide substitution at position 1027, leading to the missense mutation of alanine to valine at codon 285, the disease had a later onset (mean, 51 years) but a more rapid course. Comparison of the disease phenotypes associated with other missense mutations in exon 9 of PS-1 reveals no clinical or pathological phenotype, which uniquely distinguishes Alzheimer's disease associated with PS-1 mutations from other forms of early-onset FAD, implying that direct mutation screening is required to identify these cases.