Mutations in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of autosomal dominant familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Transgenic mice that express these point mutations develop progressive paralysis and motor neuron loss thought to be caused by a gain-of-function of the enzyme. The gain-of-function may be an enhanced ability of the mutant SOD1 to generate ·OH radicals or to facilitate peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of proteins. We found significant increases in concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated nitration, in upper and lower spinal cord and in cerebral cortex of transgenic mice with the FALS-associated G93A mutation. Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was increased in cerebral cortex. 3-Nitrotyrosine-, heme oxygenase-1–, and malondialdehyde-modified protein immunoreactivities were increased throughout SOD1 transgenic mice spinal cord but particularly within motor neurons. These results suggest that the gain-of-function of at least one mutant SOD1 associated with FALS involves increased protein nitration and oxidative damage, which may play a role in neuronal degeneration.