We determined how noninvasive presurgical data relate to prognosis after temporal lobectomy in patients with independent bilateral temporal lobe (IBTL) complex partial seizures on the intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG). Between 1986 and 1994, 28 patients had IBTL seizures on intracranial EEG. Fifteen of these 28 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and 13 were not offered surgery. Of the 15 patients who had surgery, 10 patients became seizure-free. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Wada test were the only variables associated with a seizure-free outcome. Seven of 10 seizure-free patients had a lateralized Wada result or the presence of unilateral hippocampal sclerosis, whereas none of the patients with persistent seizures had either of these findings. Variables not found to be predictive of a seizure-free outcome included location of scalp interictal spikes, degree of seizure-onset laterality, presence of early epilepsy risk factor, duration of epilepsy, and full-scale intelligence quotient. We conclude that MRI and the Wada test provide information of prognostic value in patients with bilateral temporal seizures independent of intracranial EEG data.