Multiple sclerosis: In situ evidence for antibody- and complement-mediated demyelination



We describe a case of multiple sclerosis characterized by deposition of immunoglobulin and complement in the areas of active demyelination. This was particularly evident for the C9neo antigen, which is a marker for the activated lytic complement complex and was exclusively deposited in the areas of active myelin destruction. In addition, macrophages in the lesions contained degradation products that were immunoreactive for myelin antigens, immunoglobulins, and C9neo antigen. Destruction of myelin sheaths was associated with incomplete loss of oligodendrocytes in the active areas and reappearance of oligodendrocytes with remyelination in the inactive plaque center.