The Spectra of Cosmic Pions and Nucleons at Low and High Geomagnetic Latitudes at the Top of the Atmosphere



The spectra of cosmic pions and nucleons at an atmospheric depth of 100 g cm−2 have been derived from sea level muon spectra at low and high latitudes. The derived spectra of pions and nucleons at low and high latitudes follow the relations N(Eπ) dEπ = 0.23 Eπ−2.68dEπ and N(Ep) dEp = 2.98 Emath imagedEp per cm2 sec str GeV in the energy range 15–1200 GeV. Below 15 GeV it is found that the exponent of the energy spectrum is very much dependent upon the incident energy and latitude of the location. The major difference between low and high latitude pion spectra can be explained in terms of geomagnetic effects.