Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies on the system Ce(Cu1−xNix)2Ge2 are reported. These measurements are complemented by measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, high-field magnetization, heat capacity, thermal expansion, electrical resistivity and thermopower. The results reveal an interesting T-x phase diagram consisting of two different antiferromagnetic phases for x < 0.2 and 0.2 < x < 0.75, respectively, and a heavy-Fermi-liquid regime at higher Ni concentrations. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of an alloying-induced transition from local-moment to itinerant heavy-fermion magnetism. Fingerprints of this latter phase are a strongly reduced ordered moment and a short incommensurate ordering wave vector, in accord with theoretical predictions. A surprisingly good agreement between theory and experiment is found for x > 0.5. Further experimental evidence for different types of antiferromagnetic ordering derives from a line-shape analysis of the quasielastic neutron-scattering intensity, from magnetization and thermopower experiments.