• Cesium atomic clock;
  • Realization of the unit second;
  • Majorana transitions;
  • Uncertainty


This paper deals with a theoretical model which describes the effect of Majorana transitions on the frequency of a cesium atomic clock. In contrast to the explanations given in the past, the phase correlation between the individual successive excitations in inhomogeneous magnetic fields and the microwave resonator are for the first time taken into account.

The π transitions with the selection rule ΔF = 1, Δm = ± 1 are of particular importance. The theory allows experimental results obtained in the past with the CSX apparatus, in particular the large frequency shifts observed, to be interpreted. The effect on the determination of the uncertainty of primary atomic clocks will be discussed.