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Keywords:

  • Strong CP conservation;
  • Axions;
  • Vacuum phase transitions;
  • Higgs scalar fields

Abstract

During the thermal evolution of the universe, symmetry of the vacuum state in the presence of quantum fields should have changed at various stages. A possible indication of this effect on the DFSZ invisible axion model of the Peccei-Quinn CP conserving mechanism is presented here. To start with, the background theory of this mechanism in the cosmic evolution has been fully reviewed, as well as the leading cosmological arguments setting limits on the mass and coupling of such a particle. The CP conserving lagrangian of the invisible axion model also includes instanton gauge field configurations. In our opinion, these configurations could behave non trivially while decreasing the temperature as a consequence of the vacuum symmetry modifications. The interplay between symmetry modifications and cosmic evolution may thus lead to yet unclear effects. In fact, the model considered here is really quite a baby version of the real world, so that only preliminary indications and bare consistency arguments have been done from it. Nevertheless, the underlying idea, a possible neutral Higgs fields approximate resonance condition, seems to survive even in more sophisticated models.