We review the different aspects of the interaction of mesoscopic quantum systems with gravitational fields. We first discuss briefly the foundations of general relativity and quantum mechanics. Then, we consider the non-relativistic expansions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in the post-Newtonian approximation. After a short overview of classical gravitational waves, we discuss two proposed interaction mechanisms: (i) the use of quantum fluids as generator and/or detector of gravitational waves in the laboratory, and (ii) the inclusion of gravitomagnetic fields in the study of the properties of rotating superconductors. The foundations of the proposed experiments are explained and evaluated.