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Keywords:

  • Spontaneous emission;
  • field theory;
  • squeezed states

Abstract

We investigate (non-relativistic) atomic systems interacting with quantum electromagnetic field (QEF). The resulting model describes spontaneous emission of light from a two-level atom surrounded by various initial states of the QEF. We assume that the quantum field interacts with the atom via the standard, minimal-coupling Hamiltonian, with the A2 term neglected. We also assume that there will appear at most single excitations (photons). By conducting the analysis on a general level we allow for an arbitrary initial state of the QEF (which can be for instance: the vacuum, the ground state in a cavity, or the squeezed state). We derive a Volterra-type equation which governs the time evolution of the amplitude of the excited state. The two-point function of the initial state of the QEF, integrated with a combination of atomic wavefunctions, forms the kernel of this equation.