The Hubbard model extended by nearest-neighbor Coulomb and exchange interaction on a cubic cluster – rigorous and exact results



The Hubbard model on a cube was revisited and extended by both nearest-neighbor Coulomb correlation W and nearest-neighbor Heisenberg exchange J. The complete eigensystem was computed exactly for all electron occupancies and all model parameters ranging from minus infinity to plus infinity. For two electrons on the cluster the eigensystem is given in analytical form. For six electrons and infinite on-site correlation U we determinded the groundstate and the groundstate energy of the pure Hubbard model analytically. For fixed electron numbers we found a multitude of ground state level crossings depending on the various model parameters. Furthermore the groundstates of the pure Hubbard model in dependence on a magnetic field h coupled to the spins are shown for the complete U-h plane. The critical magnetic field, where the zero spin groundstate breaks down is given for four and six electrons. Suprisingly we found parameter regions, where the ground state spin does not depend monotonously on J in the extended model. For the cubic cluster gas, i.e. an ensemble of clusters coupled to an electron bath, we calculated the density n (μ, T, h) and the thermodynamical density of states from the grand potential. The ground states and the various spin-spin correlation functions are studied for both attractive and repulsive values of the three interaction constants. We determined the various anomalous degeneration lines, where n (μ, T = 0, h = 0) shows steps higher than one, since in this parameter regions exotic phenomena as phase separation are to expect in extended models. For the cases where these lines end in triple points, i.e. groundstates of three different occupation numbers are degenerated, we give the related parameter values. Regarding the influence of the nn-exchange and the nn-Coulomb correlation onto the anomalous degeneration we find both lifting and inducing of degeneracies depending on the parameter values.