Annalen der Physik

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 1

February 2009

Volume 18, Issue 1

Pages 1–76

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
    1. Cover Picture: Ann. Phys. 1/2009

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200990001

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
    1. Editorial Board: Ann. Phys. 1/2009

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200990002

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
    1. Contents: Ann. Phys. 1/2009 (pages 1–3)

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200918001

  4. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
    1. Prediction of spinodal wavelength in continuously cooled metallic liquid (pages 4–12)

      C. Borchers, J. Schroers and R. Busch

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200810330

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The spinodal decomposition of a deeply undercooled metallic liquid Zr41.2 Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 between 800 and 700 K is analysed in the framework of the theory of Cahn and Hilliard for continuous cooling, and the wavelength with maximum amplification is predicted, using as input parameters thermodynamic values gained in experiments. Electron microscopical studies show the microstructure of glass forming alloys Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. The as-cast material exhibits a two phase mixture of amorphous regions with different compositions. Evidence for spinodal decomposition is given, and the computed maximum-amplitude wavelength corresponds well with the one found in the experiments.

    2. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation (pages 13–32)

      M.P. Da̧browski, J. Garecki and D.B. Blaschke

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200810331

      Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and Einstein's general relativity theory. In this paper we discuss the rules of these transformations for geometric quantities as well as for the matter energy-momentum tensor. We show the subtlety of the matter energy-momentum conservation law which refers to the fact that the conformal transformation “creates” an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservation law. In an extreme case of the flat original spacetime the matter is “created” due to work done by the conformal transformation to bend the spacetime which was originally flat. We discuss how to construct the conformally invariant gravity theories and also find the conformal transformation rules for the curvature invariants R2, RabRab, RabcdRabcd and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant in a spacetime of an arbitrary dimension. Finally, we present the conformal transformation rules in the fashion of the duality transformations of the superstring theory. In such a case the transitions between conformal frames reduce to a simple change of the sign of a redefined conformal factor.

    3. Information in asset pricing: a wave function approach (pages 33–44)

      H. Ishio and E. Haven

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200810333

      This paper introduces a quantum-like wave function as an information wave function. We show how the option pricing partial differential equation can be re-written when we account for such information wave function. We use two stochastic differential equations, one of which relates to Nelson's hypothesis of Universal Brownian motion. We also provide for two examples which further highlight the proposed theory.

    4. Integrability and the variational formulation of non-conservative mechanical systems (pages 45–56)

      D.H. Delphenich

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200710332

      It is shown that one can obtain canonically-defined dynamical equations for non-conservative mechanical systems by starting with a first variation functional, instead of an action functional, and finding their zeroes. The kernel of the first variation functional, as an integral functional, is a 1-form on the manifold of kinematical states, which then represents the dynamical state of the system. If the 1-form is exact then the first variation functional is associated with the first variation of an action functional in the usual manner. The dynamical equations then follow from the vanishing of the dual of the Spencer operator that acts on the dynamical state. This operator, in turn, relates to the integrability of the kinematical states. The method is applied to the modeling of damped oscillators.

    5. A look at the abandoned contributions to cosmology of Dirac, Sciama, and Dicke (pages 57–70)

      A. Unzicker

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200810335

      The separate contributions to cosmology of the above researchers are revisited and a cosmology encompassing their basic ideas is proposed. We study Dirac's article (1938) on the large number hypothesis, Sciama's proposal (1953) of realizing Mach's principle, and Dicke's considerations (1957) on a flat-space representation of general relativity with a variable speed of light (VSL). Dicke's tentative theory can be formulated in a way which is compatible with Sciama's hypothesis on the gravitational constant G. Additionally, such a cosmological model is shown to satisfy Dirac's second ‘large number’ hypothesis on the total number of particles in the universe being proportional to the square of the epoch. In the same context, Dirac's first hypothesis on an epoch-dependent G – contrary to his prediction – does not necessarily produce a visible time dependence of G. While Dicke's proposal reproduces the classical tests of GR in first approximation, the cosmological redshift is described by a shortening of measuring rods rather than an expansion of space. Since the temporal evolution of the horizon R is governed by equation image, the flatness and horizon problems do not arise in the common form.

  5. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
  6. 100 years ago

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Contents
    5. Original Papers
    6. Book Review
    7. 100 years ago
    1. Annalen der Physik. Band 28 (pages 73–76)

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.200990000

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A closer look into the grand history of Annalen der Physik: themes which ccupied the minds of physicists one century ago

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION