Annalen der Physik

Cover image for Vol. 525 Issue 8-9

Special Issue: Precision Experiments and Fundamental Physics at Low Energies - Part II

September 2013

Volume 525, Issue 8-9

Pages A117–A144, 539–737

Issue edited by: Klaus Blaum, Holger Müller, Nathal Severijns

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Contents
    6. Retrospect
    7. Editorial
    8. Physics Forum
    9. Special Features
    10. Physics Forum
    11. Advisory Board
    12. Review Articles
    13. Feature Article
    14. Original Papers
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      Cover Picture: Ann. Phys. 8-9'2013

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370080

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      Fundamental constants link seemingly different fields of physics and seemingly different quantities and measurement units. Consequently, they are of the utmost interest in metrology and it has been planned to redefine the kilogram by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. The paper by H. Bettin et al. (pp. 680–687) summarises the methods to measure the ratio between the Planck constant and a mass and reviews the determination of the Avogadro constant by counting the atoms in a silicon crystal highly enriched by the 28Si isotope.

  2. Issue Information

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    3. Issue Information
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    5. Contents
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    13. Feature Article
    14. Original Papers
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      Issue Information: Ann. Phys. 8-9'2013

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370081

  3. Call for Papers

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      Call For Papers: Ann. Phys. 8-9'2013 (page A117)

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370082

  4. Contents

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    5. Contents
    6. Retrospect
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      Contents: Ann. Phys. 8-9'2013 (pages A118–A124)

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370083

  5. Retrospect

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    14. Original Papers
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  6. Editorial

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      Precision experiments and fundamental physics at low energies – Part II (pages A127–A128)

      Klaus Blaum, Holger Müller and Nathal Severijns

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300731

  7. Physics Forum

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    1. Then & Now

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  8. Special Features

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      Special Features (page A134)

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370086

  9. Physics Forum

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    1. Expert Opinion

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  10. Advisory Board

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      Advisory Board (page A144)

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201370085

  11. Review Articles

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      Spin clocks: Probing fundamental symmetries in nature (pages 539–549)

      Werner Heil, Claudia Gemmel, Sergei Karpuk, Yuri Sobolev, Kathlynne Tullney, Fabian Allmendinger, Ulrich Schmidt, Martin Burghoff, Wolfgang Kilian, Silvia Knappe-Grüneberg, Allard Schnabel, Frank Seifert and Lutz Trahms

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300048

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      The detection of the free precession of co-located 3He/129Xe nuclear spins (clock comparison) is used as ultra-sensitive probe for non-magnetic spin interactions, since the magnetic dipole interaction (Zeeman-term) drops out in the weighted frequency difference, i.e., Δω = ωHe- γHeXe·ωXe of the respective Larmor frequencies. Recent results are reported on searches for (i) short-range P- and T-violating interactions between nucleons, and (ii) Lorentz violating signatures by monitoring the Larmor frequencies as the laboratory reference frame rotates with respect to distant stars (sidereal modulation). Finally, a new experimental initiative to search for an electric dipole moment of 129Xe (CP-violation) is discussed, which strongly benefits from the long spin-coherence times obtained, reaching T*2,He> 100 h and T*2,Xe> 8 h in case of 3He and 129Xe, respectively.

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      Searching for electric dipole moments (pages 550–564)

      Klaus Jungmann

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300071

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      Searches for a permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle provide a wide window for the discovery of potential New Physics. Within todays Standard Model in particle physics the well established violation of CP symmetry gives rise to EDMs which are several orders of magnitude below the present experimentally established upper bounds. On the other hand, EDMs appear quite naturally within many modern speculative theories, which have been suggested to improve the known shortcomings of the present Standard Model, e.g., the lack of giving reasons for certain established facts such as the mass hierarchy of the fundamental fermions or the number of three particle generations. They could be almost as large as the present experimental bounds. The speculative models provide for EDMs of different fundamental particles in specific ways. As there is no convincing indication, yet, which of the various extensions to the present standard theory may be more successful, a larger number of EDM searches is very well motivated. Still, even with the discovery of an EDM in one system several experiments will be required to pin down the precise nature and the underlying processes. Therefore searches are going on presently in a variety of systems, ranging from free leptons to complex condensed matter samples. These experiments utilize typically state of the art precision measurements which are often based on forefront technological developments. The experimental efforts are complemented and guided by the further development and refinement of particle theory. Here a few aspects of recent developments in this exciting field are summarized.

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      Neutrino masses (pages 565–575)

      Christian Weinheimer and Kai Zuber

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300063

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      The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidence that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot provide the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations, two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double β-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single β-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments using different techniques are being constructed, commissioned, or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of ��(100) meV. The principal methods and these experiments are discussed in this short review.

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      Precision measurements in nuclear β-decay with LPCTrap (pages 576–587)

      Gilles Ban, Dominique Durand, Xavier Fléchard, Etienne Liénard and Oscar Naviliat-Cuncic

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300043

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      The experimental achievements and the current program with the LPCTrap device installed at the LIRAT beam line of the SPIRAL1-GANIL facility are presented. The device is dedicated to the study of the weak interaction at low energy by means of precise measurements of the β−ν angular correlation parameter. Technical aspects as well as the main results are reviewed. The future program with new available beams is briefly discussed.

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      Open issues in neutrino astrophysics (pages 588–599)

      Cristina Volpe

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300064

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      Neutrinos of astrophysical origin are messengers produced in stars, in explosive phenomena like core-collapse supernovae, in the accretion disks around black holes, or in the Earth's atmosphere. Their fluxes and spectra encode information on the environments that produce them. Such fluxes are modified in characteristic ways when neutrinos traverse a medium. Here the current understanding of neutrino flavour conversion in media is summarized. The importance of this domain for astrophysical observations is emphasized. Examples are given of the fundamental properties that research into astrophysical neutrinos has uncovered, or might reveal in the future.

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      Prospects for precision measurements in nuclear β decay in the LHC era (pages 600–619)

      Oscar Naviliat-Cuncic and Martín González-Alonso

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300072

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      Precision measurements in nuclear β decay offer a sensitive window to search for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. Searches for new physics are also a strong motivation for experiments carried out at the high energy frontier. It is instructive to confront results from the low energy and the high energy frontiers in order to look for possible complementarities. This paper reviews the constraints on new physics obtained from nuclear and neutron decays and compares them to those from other semi-leptonic processes and from the LHC. The sensitivity requirements of new precision experiments in β decay, to impact the search for new physics at the light of current and projected LHC results, are updated. Experimental developments in nuclear and neutron β decay are discussed with emphasis on their projected goals to improve the limits on exotic weak couplings.

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      Electron g-factor determinations in Penning traps (pages 620–635)

      Sven Sturm, Günter Werth and Klaus Blaum

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300052

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      The magnetic moment of the electron, expressed by the g-factor in units of the Bohr magneton, is a key quantity in the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Experiments using single particles confined in Penning traps have provided very precise values of the g-factor for the free electron as well as the electron bound in hydrogen-like ions. In this paper the status of these experiments is reviewed. The results allow testing calculations of higher order Feynman diagrams. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for free and bound particles show no discrepancy within the limits of error, thus representing to date the most sensitive test of QED. Moreover, the g-factor provides a unique access to fundamental constants, as e.g. the electron mass or the fine structure constant.

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      Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions (pages 636–646)

      Andrey V. Volotka, Dmitry A. Glazov, Günter Plunien and Vladimir M. Shabaev

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300079

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      Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnetic moments with heavy ions are discussed.

  12. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
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    3. Issue Information
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    5. Contents
    6. Retrospect
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    9. Special Features
    10. Physics Forum
    11. Advisory Board
    12. Review Articles
    13. Feature Article
    14. Original Papers
    1. Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen (pages 647–651)

      Randolf Pohl, Aldo Antognini, Fernando D. Amaro, François Biraben, João M. R. Cardoso, Daniel S. Covita, Andreas Dax, Satish Dhawan, Marc Diepold, Luis M. P. Fernandes, Adolf Giesen, Andrea L. Gouvea, Thomas Graf, Theodor W. Hänsch, Paul Indelicato, Lucile Julien, Cheng-Yang Kao, Paul Knowles, José A. M. Lopes, Eric-Olivier Le Bigot, Yi-Wei Liu, Livia Ludhova, Cristina M. B. Monteiro, Françoise Mulhauser, Tobias Nebel, François Nez, Paul Rabinowitz, Joaquim M. F. dos Santos, Lukas A. Schaller, Karsten Schuhmann, Catherine Schwob, David Taqqu, João F. C. A. Veloso, Jan Vogelsang and Franz Kottmann

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300058

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      Muonic hydrogen (μp) is a very sensitive probe of the proton structure. Laser spectroscopy of two 2S-2P transitions in μp was used to determine both the Lamb shift and the hyperfine splitting of the 2S state in μp. The rms charge radius of the proton, Rch = 0.84087(39) fm, was extracted from the Lamb shift. The Zemach radius of the proton, RZ = 1.082(37) fm, was obtained from the 2S-hyperfine splitting. This article summarizes the previously published findings.

  13. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
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    14. Original Papers
    1. A new approach to test Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction (pages 653–658)

      Hans W. Wilschut, Elwin A. Dijck, Steven Hoekstra, Klaus Jungmann, Stefan E. Müller, Jacob P. Noordmans, Gerco Onderwater, Coen Pijpker, Auke Sytema, Rob G. E. Timmermans, K. Keri Vos and Lorenz Willmann

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300076

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      Lorentz invariance has been tested rather poorly on the weak interaction in comparison to the electromagnetic interaction. This work discusses which tests on the weak interaction may be relevant. In particular, it considers exploiting the spin degrees of freedom in β decay for testing rotational invariance. The relation between the various phenomenological tests of Lorentz invariance is shown using a new theoretical framework.

    2. The Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic physics (GNOME): A novel scheme to search for physics beyond the Standard Model (pages 659–670)

      Szymon Pustelny, Derek F. Jackson Kimball, Chris Pankow, Micah P. Ledbetter, Przemyslaw Wlodarczyk, Piotr Wcislo, Maxim Pospelov, Joshua R. Smith, Jocelyn Read, Wojciech Gawlik and Dmitry Budker

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300061

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      A novel experimental scheme enabling the investigation of transient exotic spin couplings is discussed. The scheme is based on synchronous measurements of optical-magnetometer signals from several devices operating in magnetically shielded environments in distant locations (≳ 100 km). Although signatures of such exotic couplings may be present in the signal from a single magnetometer, it would be challenging to distinguish them from noise. By analyzing the correlation between signals from multiple, geographically separated magnetometers, it is not only possible to identify the exotic transient but also to investigate its nature. The ability of the network to probe presently unconstrained physics beyond the Standard Model is examined by considering the spin coupling to stable topological defects (e.g., domain walls) of axion-like fields. In the spirit of this research, a brief (∼2 hours) demonstration experiment involving two magnetometers located in Kraków and Berkeley (∼9000 km separation) is presented and discussion of the data-analysis approaches that may allow identification of transient signals is provided. The prospects of the network are outlined in the last part of the paper.

    3. Precision spectroscopy of the 2S-4P transition in atomic hydrogen on a cryogenic beam of optically excited 2S atoms (pages 671–679)

      Axel Beyer, Janis Alnis, Ksenia Khabarova, Arthur Matveev, Christian G. Parthey, Dylan C. Yost, Randolf Pohl, Thomas Udem, Theodor W. Hänsch and Nikolai Kolachevsky

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300075

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      Precision spectroscopy of the 2S − 4P1/2 and 2S − 4P3/2 transitions in atomic hydrogen is performed with a reproducibility of a few parts in 1012. A cryogenic beam of metastable 2S atoms is obtained by optical excitation, avoiding excessive heating of electron impact excitation used in all previous experiments of this kind. Despite the low temperature of 5.8 K, the first-order Doppler effect is the dominating systematic shift, which is suppressed to a very high degree. The effectiveness of this suppression is verified by employing a time-resolved detection scheme. This experiment should contribute to an improved determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton r.m.s. charge radius.

    4. Accurate measurements of the Avogadro and Planck constants by counting silicon atoms (pages 680–687)

      Horst Bettin, Kenichi Fujii, John Man, Giovanni Mana, Enrico Massa and Alain Picard

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300038

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      Fundamental constants link seemingly different fields of physics and seemingly different quantities and measurement units. Consequently, they are of the utmost interest in metrology and it has been planned to redefine the kilogram by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. This paper summarises the methods to measure the ratio between the Planck constant and a mass and reviews the determination of the Avogadro constant by counting the atoms in a silicon crystal highly enriched by the 28Si isotope.

    5. The interconversion of the radial motional modes of an ion in a Penning trap mass spectrometer by 4n-polar external radio frequency fields (n = 1,2,3,4) (pages 688–706)

      Martin Kretzschmar

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300069

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      In Penning trap mass spectrometry ion masses are determined by measuring the free cyclotron frequency νc = qB/(2π m) via the resonant conversion of the magnetron into the cyclotron motional mode, induced by the interaction with an external radio-frequency field. With octupolar rf-fields of frequency νrf ≈ 2νc the mass resolution has been improved by more than an order of magnitude as compared to conventional quadrupolar fields of frequency νrf ≈ νc and with the same pulse duration. This result raises the question what one might expect from using 12-polar rf-fields with frequency νrf ≈ 3νc or even 16-polar rf-fields with frequency νrf ≈ 4νc.

      In this paper the theoretical model for the interconversion of the radial modes by quadrupolar and octupolar rf-fields is generalized to general 4n-polar fields. As in the earlier work the complex amplitudes of the cyclotron and magnetron oscillators are used as dynamical variables and the Hamiltonian equations of motion are reformulated in terms of Bloch vector components. The resulting non-linear differential equations can be solved numerically.

      Results are presented on excitation functions (conversion at the exact resonance frequency) and on conversion line shapes (dependence of conversion on the detuning parameter). The most important observation is the decrease of the resonance width by a factor of 2 × 103 as one passes from quadrupolar (n = 1) to 12-polar (n = 3) and 16-polar (n = 4) excitation.

    6. Penning-trap mass spectrometry and neutrino physics (pages 707–719)

      Sergey Eliseev, Yuri N. Novikov and Klaus Blaum

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300056

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      Rapidly developing neutrino physics has found in Penning-trap mass spectrometry a staunch ally in investigating a variety of fundamental problems. The most familiar are the absolute neutrino mass, possible existence of resonant neutrinoless double-electron capture and of keV-sterile neutrinos, and investigation of neutrino oscillations. This article is a brief review of the latest achievements and future perspectives of Penning-trap mass spectrometry in the exploration of these problems with a focus on electron capture and double electron capture processes.

    7. MICROSCOPE – fabricating test masses for an in-orbit test of the equivalence principle (pages 720–727)

      Daniel Hagedorn, Heinz-Peter Heyne, Stephan Metschke, Uwe Langner, Sven Grüner, Frank Löffler, Vincent Lebat, Manuel Rodrigues and Pierre Touboul

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300074

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      The MICROSCOPE space mission is to test in 2016 the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) with an accuracy of 10−15. This fundamental physics mission should provide answers to the basic question of the universality of free-falling bodies in a uniform gravity field. During 18 months, the mission should improve the current ground experiments by at least two orders of magnitude. The payload is composed of two electrostatic differential space accelerometers that exhibit a resolution of 2×10−12 m s−2 Hz−1/2. By measuring the difference of acceleration between two concentric test masses at the orbital frequency, a possible WEP violation signal is extracted from the measurement where the gravity gradient effect dominates by a factor of one hundred.

      This paper addresses the scientific objective of the space mission and describes how the performance drives the specification. A particular focus is made on the work jointly performed by ONERA and PTB to fulfil the fabricating requirements.

    8. A nanonewton force facility to test Newton's law of gravity at micro- and submicrometer distances (pages 728–737)

      Vladimir Nesterov, Sebastian Buetefisch and Ludger Koenders

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300057

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      An experiment to test Newton's law of gravity at micro- and submicrometer distances using a nanonewton force facility at PTB and modern microtechnologies is proposed. It is anticipated that the proposed method can advance the search for non-Newtonian gravity forces via an enhanced sensitivity of 103 to 104 in comparison to current experiments at the micrometer length scale.

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