Designing p-Type Semiconductor–Metal Hybrid Structures for Improved Photocatalysis

Authors

  • Lili Wang,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Jing Ge,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Ailun Wang,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Mingsen Deng,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Xijun Wang,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Song Bai,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Rui Li,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Prof. Jun Jiang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
    • Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/===

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  • Prof. Qun Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
    • Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/===

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  • Prof. Yi Luo,

    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
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  • Prof. Yujie Xiong

    Corresponding author
    1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/
    • Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (P. R. China) http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/∼yjxiong/===

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  • This work was financially supported by the 973 Program (No. 2014CB848900, 2010CB923300), the NSFC (No. 21101145, 11321503, 91127042, 21173205, 91221104), the Recruitment Program of Global Experts, the CAS Hundred Talent Program, the CAS Strategic Priority Research Program B (No. XDB01020000), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. WK2060190025), and the Construction Project for Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratories (ZJ 2011 4007).

Abstract

A practical strategy is proposed to facilitate the migration of holes in semiconductor (the low rate of which limits photocatalytic efficiency) by taking advantage of the Schottky barrier between p-type semiconductor and metal. A high work function is found to serve as an important selection rule for building such desirable Schottky junction between semiconductor surface facets and metal. The intrinsic charge spatial distribution has to be taken into account when selecting the facets, as it results in accumulation of photoexcited electrons and holes on certain semiconductor facets. Importantly, the facets have a high work function, the same characteristic required for the formation of Schottky junction in a p-type semiconductor–metal hybrid structure. As a result, the semiconductor crystals in the hybrid design may be better enclosed by single facets with high work function, so as to synergize the two effects: Schottky barrier versus charge spatial separation.

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