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Programmable Polymer-Based Supramolecular Temperature Sensor with a Memory Function

Authors

  • Léna Sambe,

    1. Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)
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  • Victor R. de La Rosa,

    1. Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)
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  • Khaled Belal,

    1. Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)
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  • Dr. François Stoffelbach,

    1. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8232, IPCM, Chimie des Polymères, 75005 Paris (France)
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  • Dr. Joel Lyskawa,

    1. Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)
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  • Dr. François Delattre,

    1. UCEIV, EA 4492, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Av. M. Schuman, 59140 Dunkerque (France)
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  • Marc Bria,

    1. Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)
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  • Prof. Graeme Cooke,

    Corresponding author
    1. Glasgow Centre for Physical Organic Chemistry, WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (UK)
    • Graeme Cooke, Glasgow Centre for Physical Organic Chemistry, WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (UK)===

      Richard Hoogenboom, Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)===

      Patrice Woisel, Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)===

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  • Prof. Richard Hoogenboom,

    Corresponding author
    1. Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)
    • Graeme Cooke, Glasgow Centre for Physical Organic Chemistry, WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (UK)===

      Richard Hoogenboom, Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)===

      Patrice Woisel, Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)===

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  • Prof. Patrice Woisel

    Corresponding author
    1. Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)
    • Graeme Cooke, Glasgow Centre for Physical Organic Chemistry, WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (UK)===

      Richard Hoogenboom, Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)===

      Patrice Woisel, Université Lille Nord de France, ENSCL, Unité des Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Equipe Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères (ISP), 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)===

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  • P.W. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (STRAPA project, ANR-12-BS08-0005). V.d.l.R. and R.H. acknowledge Ghent University (BOF) and the European Union (MC-CIG project AdaptPoly) for financial support.

Abstract

A new class of polymeric thermometers with a memory function is reported that is based on the supramolecular host–guest interactions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) with side-chain naphthalene guest moieties and the tetracationic macrocycle cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) as the host. This supramolecular thermometer exhibits a memory function for the thermal history of the solution, which arises from the large hysteresis of the thermoresponsive LCST phase transition (LCST=lower critical solution temperature). This hysteresis is based on the formation of a metastable soluble state that consists of the PNIPAM–CBPQT4+ host–guest complex. When heated above the transition temperature, the polymer collapses, and the host–guest interactions are disrupted, making the polymer more hydrophobic and less soluble in water. Aside from providing fundamental insights into the kinetic control of supramolecular assemblies, the developed thermometer with a memory function might find use in applications spanning the physical and biological sciences.

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