Pharmacophore Reassignment for Induction of the Immunosurveillance Cytokine TRAIL

Authors

  • Nicholas T. Jacob,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Dept. of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Dr. Jonathan W. Lockner,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Dept. of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Prof.Dr. Vladimir V. Kravchenko,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Dept. of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (USA)
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  • Prof. Dr. Kim D. Janda

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Dept. of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (USA)
    • Department of Chemistry, Dept. of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (USA)

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  • We thank Josh Foote for the artwork appearing in the Table of Contents entry for this communication. We are grateful to Prof. Arnold Rheingold and Dr. Curtis E. Moore (UCSD) for X-ray crystallographic analyses.

Abstract

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an immunosurveillance cytokine that kills cancer cells but demonstrates little toxicity against normal cells. While investigating the TRAIL-inducing imidazolinopyrimidinone TIC10, a misassignment of its active structure was uncovered. Syntheses of the two isomers, corresponding to the published and reassigned structures, are reported. The ability of each to induce TRAIL expression in macrophages was investigated and it was found that only the compound corresponding to the reassigned structure shows the originally reported activity; the compound corresponding to the published structure is inactive. Importantly, this structural reassignment has furnished a previously unknown antitumor pharmacophore.

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