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Keywords:

  • Kinetics;
  • Dipolar cycloaddition;
  • Cycloaddition;
  • Heterocycles;
  • Reaction mechanisms

Abstract

Criteria for the mechanism of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions which lead to 5-membered rings are provided by the stereoselectivity observed with cis-trans isomeric dipolarophiles, by the effect of solvent and substituents on the rate constants, by the activation parameters, and by orientation phenomena. A concerted addition, which can also be described in terms of molecular orbitals and in which the two new σ-bonds are formed simultaneously, although not necessarily at equal rates, offers the best explanation of the experimental facts.