Linear polyurethanes containing ionic centers at wide intervals are heteropolymers having a pronounced segment structure, i.e. ionomers. As a result of interactions between chains (Coulomb forces and hydrogen bonds), their properties are similar to those of crosslinked elastomers. They are strongly associated both in organic and in aqueous solutions. Polyurethane ionomers in polar organic solvents spontaneously form stable aqueous dispersions on addition of water, with the ionomer as the disperse phase. The particle size can be varied between 20 nm and 1 mm.