In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) compressed gases in the region of their critical temperature are used as mobile phases. SFC has important advantages over gas chromatography (GC) for the separation of low-volatile or thermally unstable substances. Like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gel chromatography, it is used for various special applications and preparative separations, e.g. in the petroleum industry and in the separation of oligomers. SFC is of great interest in fundamental research on fluid extraction and for the determination of the physicochemical properties of fluid systems. In this contribution the most important physicochemical, methodological, and instrumental principles of SFC are summarized; characteristic physicochemical applications are the determination of capacity ratios, partition coefficients, partial molar volumes, interaction second virial coefficients, and difusion coefficients.