• 1,4-Diazines;
  • Pyrazine;
  • Heterocycles


In chemical research attention is increasingly being focussed on composite “complex” systems with special properties and functions. As components of such systems 1,4-diazines are steadily gaining in popularity. Here, 1,4-diazines means pyrazine and its derivatives as well as compounds with partial pyrazine structure; examples are quinoxaline, phenazine, pteridine, flavin and their derivatives. All these compounds are characterized by a low lying unoccupied π-molecular orbital and by the ability to act as bridging ligand. Due to these two properties 1,4-diazines, and especially their parent compound pyrazine, possess a characteristic reactivity. 1,4-Diazines may be employed to study inter- and intramolecular electron transfer in organic, inorganic and biochemical reactions. In the redox system of 1,4-diazines the paramagnetic 7π-electron intermediate exhibits exceptional stability, whereas the 1,4-dihydro-1,4-diazines with 8π-electrons in a six-membered ring are not generally accessible due to their potential antiaromaticity and their large excess of π electrons. Its inherent bifunctionality and the low lying unoccupied molecular orbital permit pyrazine to form coordination polymers having unusual electrical and magnetic properties. Finally, the phenomena observed for pyrazines may be used in the interpretation of the reactivity of naturally occurring 1,4-diazines, such as flavins and bioluminescent natural products.