Starburst dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly ordered oligomeric and polymeric compounds formed by reiterative reaction sequences starting from smaller molecules—“initiator cores” such as ammonia or pentaerythritol. Protecting group strategies are crucial in these syntheses, which proceed via discrete “Aufbau” stages referred to as generations. Critical molecular design parameters (CMDPs) such as size, shape, and surface chemistry may be controlled by the reactions and synthetic building blocks used. Starburst dendrimers can mimic certain properties of micelles and liposomes and even those of biomolecules and the still more complicated, but highly organized, building blocks of biological systems. Numerous applications of these compounds are conceivable, particularly in mimicking the functions of large biomolecules as drug carriers and immunogens. This new branch of “supramolecular chemistry” should spark new developments in both organic and macromolecular chemistry.