The advantages of aqueous two-phase catalysis–-easy separation of the catalyst, resource-saving procedures, etc.—can, according to very recent research, even be used when the solubility of the starting materials in water is low and the transfer of the organic substrate into the aqueous phase or at least to the phase boundary is hindered. The application of “promotor ligands” or of catalysts with partly perfluorinated ligands enables homogeneous two-phase catalysis, which ideally combines the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
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