The role of hydrogen bonding in the formation or stabilization of liquid crystalline phases has only recently been appreciated. Following the first, wellestablished examples of liquid crystal formation from the dimerization of aromatic carboxylic acids, through hydrogen bonding, several classes of compounds have recently been synthesized, the liquid crystalline behavior of which is also dependent on intermolecular hydrogen bonds between similar or dissimilar molecules. In this review the main classes of compounds exhibiting liquid crystallinity due to hydrogen bonding are presented to show the diversity of organic compounds that can be used as building elements in liquid crystals. The molecules are either of the rigid-rod anisotropic or amphiphilic types such as molecules appropriately functionalized with pyridyl and carboxyl groups, whose interaction leads to the formation of liquid crystals; amphiphilic carbohydrates and amphiphilic and bolaamphiphilic compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups whose dimerization or association is indispensable for the formation of liquid crystals; and certain amphiphilic carboxylic acids with monomeric or polymeric mesogens and amphiphilic-type compounds bearing different moieties, whose interaction may lead to the formation of mesomorphic compounds. Associated with the macroscopic display of liquid crystalline phases is the supramolecular structure, and therefore rather extended discussion of these structures are included in this review.