Integrated Nanoparticle–Biomolecule Hybrid Systems: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications



Nanomaterials, such as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles and nanorods, exhibit similar dimensions to those of biomolecules, such as proteins (enzymes, antigens, antibodies) or DNA. The integration of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique electronic, photonic, and catalytic properties, with biomaterials, which display unique recognition, catalytic, and inhibition properties, yields novel hybrid nanobiomaterials of synergetic properties and functions. This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of biomolecule–nanoparticle/nanorod hybrid systems and the application of such assemblies in the generation of 2D and 3D ordered structures in solutions and on surfaces. Particular emphasis is directed to the use of biomolecule–nanoparticle (metallic or semiconductive) assemblies for bioanalytical applications and for the fabrication of bioelectronic devices.