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Keywords:

  • EPR spectroscopy;
  • heterogeneous catalysis;
  • NMR spectroscopy;
  • styrene oxidation;
  • zeolites
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Competing reactions, not consecutive processes, are the oxidation of styrene to styrene epoxide and the formation of phenylacetaldehyde (PADH). In situ NMR and EPR spectroscopic analysis of styrene oxidation on TS-1 zeolite (see picture) demonstrated that Brønsted acid sites provide the active centers needed to transform an intermediate hemiacetal species into PADH.