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Keywords:

  • aqueous solutions;
  • solvent properties;
  • supercritical fluids;
  • thermophysical properties;
  • water

Abstract

Water is not restricted to moderate temperatures and low pressures, but can exist up to very high temperatures, far above its critical point at 647 K. In this supercritical regime, water can be gradually compressed from gas-like to liquid-like densities. The resulting dense supercritical states have extraordinary properties which can be tuned by temperature and pressure, and form the basis for innovative technologies. This Review covers the current knowledge of the major properties of supercritical water and its solutions with nonpolar, polar, and ionic compounds, and of the underlying molecular processes.