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Deactivation of Pd Acetoxylation Catalysts: Direct Observations by XPS Investigations

Authors

  • Jörg Radnik Dr.,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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    • A member of the EU-funded “Coordination Action of Nanostructured Catalytic Oxide Research and Development in Europe” (CONCORDE).

  • Abdulhadi Benhmid,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • Venkata Narayana Kalevaru Dr.,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • Marga-Martina Pohl Dr.,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • Andreas Martin Dr.,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • Bernhard Lücke Prof. Dr.,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • Uwe Dingerdissen Dr.

    1. Institut für Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V. Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 12, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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  • We thank Dr. M. Schneider for his help in characterizing these catalysts and for valuable discussions. XPS=X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Abstract

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Addition of Bi prevents deactivation of Pd–Sb catalysts in the acetoxylation of toluene. The presence of Bi hinders the formation of an inactive Pdδ− state and the blockage of the active Pd sites by carbon species from coke deposits (see the photoelectron spectrum). The modified catalyst displays extremely high selectivity for benzyl acetate (≥95 %) at higher toluene conversions.

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