• electrochemistry;
  • interfaces;
  • scanning electrochemical microscopy;
  • scanning probe microscopy;
  • ultramicroelectrodes


Not only in electrochemistry but also in biology and in membrane transport, localized processes at solid–liquid or liquid–liquid interfaces play an important role at defect sites, pores, or individual cells, but are difficult to characterize by integral investigation. Scanning electrochemical microscopy is suitable for such investigations. After two decades of development, this method is based on a solid theoretical foundation and a large number of demonstrated applications. It offers the possibility of directly imaging heterogeneous reaction rates and locally modifying substrates by electrochemically generated reagents. The applications range from classical electrochemical problems, such as the investigation of localized corrosion and electrocatalytic reactions in fuel cells, sensor surfaces, biochips, and microstructured analysis systems, to mass transport through synthetic membranes, skin and tissue, as well as intercellular communication processes. Moreover, processes can be studied that occur at liquid surfaces and liquid–liquid interfaces.