Synthesis of Calix[3]dipyrrins by a Modified Lindsey Protocol


  • This work was partly supported by a grant-in-aid (B no. 17350017) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan.


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Bowled over: Calix[3]dipyrrins were synthesized from pyrrole and aryl aldehyde precursors by the Lindsey protocol, modified by the presence of a small amount of water. These bowl-shaped macrocycles can accommodate three metal (M) ions such as NiII and CuII in a hexagonal M3O3 manner (see structure; Cu green, N blue, O red, C black).