Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling of Ammonia and Hydroxide with Aryl Halides: The Direct Synthesis of Primary Anilines and Phenols



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Back to basics: Ligand design has allowed two longstanding limitations of Pd-catalyzed C[BOND]N and C[BOND]O coupling reactions to be overcome. The use of specific sterically demanding electron-rich phosphine ligands makes it possible for ammonia and potassium hydroxide to act as coupling partners in palladium-catalyzed coupling with aryl halides.