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Keywords:

  • cell adhesion;
  • layered compounds;
  • multilayers;
  • proteins;
  • thin films
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Layer it on: Cellular multilayers were fabricated by preparing nanometer-sized extracellular matrix (ECM) films (6-nm thick) with fibronectin (FN) and gelatin on the surface of each cell layer. The four-layer cellular architecture was well organized and self-standing. Xenogenic human bilayer architectures similar to blood vessels were prepared by fabrication of the nanofilms on cell surfaces.