Vesicle Formation from Reactive Surfactants


  • This work was supported by EU COST action D27 “Prebiotic Chemistry and Early Evolution”.


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Zwitterionic gemini vesicles: Alkylphosphothioates and N-(2-bromoethyl)-N,N-dimethylalkylammonium surfactants react quantitatively in aqueous buffer to form zwitterionic gemini surfactants. The reaction products transform spontaneously into lipid vesicles that behave similarly to phospholipid vesicles. The zwitterionic gemini vesicles encapsulate water-soluble molecules; when fed with the single-chain precursors, they grow quantitatively.