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Directing the Structure of Metal–Organic Frameworks by Oriented Surface Growth on an Organic Monolayer


  • We would like to thank Sebastian Bauer (University of Kiel, Germany) for fruitful discussions.


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Orientation and structure of porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on iron and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid can be controlled by heterogeneous nucleation on self-assembled monolayers of mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA). Thus, the product of homogeneous nucleation is the MOF Fe-MIL-53, whereas in the same crystallization solution, oriented Fe-MIL-88B grows on a MHDA-functionalized gold surface (see picture).