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Keywords:

  • DNA;
  • electrochemistry;
  • nucleobases;
  • nucleosides;
  • oligonucleotides
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Primer extension is used to incorporate labeled nucleoside triphosphates into oligonucleotides (ONs). Aminophenyl and nitrophenyl modifications serve as electrochemical labels that are detectable by either oxidation or reduction, respectively (see representation of the ON double strand and redox curves). The redox potentials of the labels differ depending on the nucleobase and respond to incorporation into ONs.