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Hydrogen Storage in Microporous Metal–Organic Frameworks with Exposed Metal Sites



Owing to their high uptake capacity at low temperature and excellent reversibility kinetics, metal–organic frameworks have attracted considerable attention as potential solid-state hydrogen storage materials. In the last few years, researchers have also identified several strategies for increasing the affinity of these materials towards hydrogen, among which the binding of H2 to unsaturated metal centers is one of the most promising. Herein, we review the synthetic approaches employed thus far for producing frameworks with exposed metal sites, and summarize the hydrogen uptake capacities and binding energies in these materials. In addition, results from experiments that were used to probe independently the metal–hydrogen interaction in selected materials will be discussed.